Thomas Addison (b. April 1793, Longbenton - d. 29 June 1860, Brighton) English physician. Drawing attention to the kidney valves, whose duties were not well known at that time, Thomas Addison first described the slow-growing failure of the adrenal glands (Addison's disease) while examining various forms of anemia (1855). He is regarded as the founder of the science of endocrinology with his works.