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Gerontology or jerontology (Ancient Greek γέρων (géron), "old man" + λόγος (lógos), "science") means the science of aging and old age. This term was first used by Russian scientist Ilya Mechnikov, who received the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1903. Since the 1930s, it has been taught at various universities in the USA and Europe as a department. The main reason for gerontology coming to this position is the increase in the elderly population due to the ever-prolonging life span. Gerontology is an interdisciplinary science, that is, aging and aging are studied in different disciplines. Besides theoretical studies, gerontology is also an applied science branch. First of all, the goal of improving the living conditions of the elderly is pursued. New technological or economic developments offer many opportunities to approach this goal. The first Gerontology chair that opened aging and old age to discussion within the social sciences was established in Antalya Akdeniz University in 2006.

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